for TRIPS@10 Conference
Tahir Amin is the Co-Founder and Director of Intellectual Property at I-MAK. I-MAK is composed of a team of lawyers and scientists who seek to increase access to affordable medicines. Amin practiced as a solicitor of the Supreme Court of England and Wales with two of the leading IP firms in the UK and also served as an in-house global IP manager for a multinational company. He has over 10 years experience in prosecuting, licensing, opposing and litigating trademarks, patents, and designs. Prior to founding I-MAK, he spent two years in India researching public interest IP issues and working on pharmaceutical patent oppositions. Amin has also served as legal advisor/consultant to many groups, including the World Health Organization, Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative, Doctors without Borders, Oxfam, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, United Nations, and governments seeking to improve the patent system. He has published in many prominent venues including Health Affairs and Nature Biotech. Currently, Amin is a Fellow at the Harvard Medical School in the Department of Global Health & Social Medicine, a 2008 Echoing Green Fellow and a 2009 TEDIndia Fellow.
Ashish Arora is a professor at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business. He is on leave from Carnegie Mellon University, where he holds the H. John Heinz III Professorship of Economics, Innovation and Economic Development, with a courtesy appointment in the School of Computer Science. His research focuses on the economics of technology and technical change. Arora's research includes the study of technology intensive industries such as software, biotechnology and chemicals, the role of patents and licensing in promoting technology startups, and the economics of information security. Along with Alfonso Gambardella and Andrea Fosfuri, he authored Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy, MIT Press, 2001. He served as a co-director of the Software Industry Center at Carnegie Mellon University until 2006. He is an Associate Editor for Management Science and is on the editorial board of five other academic journals. He has served on several committees for bodies such as the National Academy of Sciences and the Association of Computing Machinery. He currently serves on the Advisory Committee on Measuring Innovation in the 21st Century to the Secretary of Commerce. He got his Ph.D. in Economics from Stanford University.
Jorge Avila has served as President of the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (part of the World Intellectual Property Organization) since 1996. Prior to this, Avila served as Vice President of INPI between 2004 and 2006. He also served as Executive-Director of the Brazilian Innovation Agency, FINEP, from 1999 to 2003, and of Rio de Janeiro Industrial Development Organization, CODIN, from 1995 to 1999. Avila also worked as an engineer and technical consultant for Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Petrobras), and as a visiting professor for various universities in Brazil. Avila holds a B.Sc. (Engineering), MSc. (Business Administration) and PhD (Collective Health/Planning and Public Policies).
James Bacchus is a Principal Shareholder at Greenberg Traurig and Chairman of the Global Trade Practice Group. He has been with Greenberg Traurig for 12 years and has been practicing law for almost 30 years. Bacchus leads the firm’s worldwide practice on trade policies, remedies, negotiations, disputes, arbitrations, and other international trade issues. In particular, he offers legal, political, and strategic advice to worldwide clients based on his unique experience with issues relating to the global rules for trade and commerce of the World Trade Organization. During a leave of absence from Greenberg Traurig, Bacchus served as a Member (for eight years) and Chairman (for two terms) of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The seven judges of the Appellate Body hear final appeals in international trade disputes. He also served as a former Member of the Congress of the United States, from Florida; and a former Special Assistant to the U.S. Trade Representative. In addition to his current role with Greenberg Traurig, Bacchus is a visiting professor of law at Vanderbilt University Law School in Nashville, Tennessee. He is the author of Trade and Freedom (Cameron May Ltd, February 2004). He holds a J.D. from Florida State University College of Law, an M.A. from Yale University (Woodrow Wilson Fellow), and a B.A. from Vanderbilt University.
Fred Block is Research Professor of Sociology at the University of California at Davis. He has written widely in economic and political sociology. His most recent book, edited with Matthew R. Keller, is State of Innovation: The U.S. Government’s Role in Technology Development, (Paradigm, 2011). This book emerged from a Ford Foundation research project exploring the “hidden developmental state” in the U.S. This ongoing research is now focusing on the Department of Energy’s initiatives to accelerate alternative energy technologies. He is also working on a forthcoming book with Margaret Somers, Free Market Utopia (forthcoming from Harvard University Press) that focuses on the social theory of Karl Polanyi. His earlier books include: The Origins of International Economic Disorder (University of California Press, 1977), Revising State Theory (Temple University Press, 1987), and Postindustrial Possibilities (University of California Press, 1990). His article “Crisis and Renewal: The Outlines of a 21st Century New Deal,” will appear in Socio-Economic Review.
Leonardo Burlamaqui, a program officer at the Ford Foundation, works on global economic governance issues. His grantmaking focuses on helping to redesign and democratize global financial governance systems, and the development of regional financial cooperation. The main goal is to make global financial institutions more transparent, accountable and effective in delivering financial stability and finance for development. His work supports new thinking, policy alternatives, capacity building and advocacy in these areas. Before joining the Ford Foundation in 2006, Burlamaqui was a professor and research director of the law and economics program at the Candido Mendes University and associate professor of economics at the State University of Rio de Janeiro. He also served as one of two coordinators of the Ford Foundation-funded Research and Learning Network on Globalization and Development. Burlamaqui’s career as a development economist and policy researcher includes posts at the World Intellectual Property Organization, the World Institute for Development Economics Research in Helsinki, the Institute of Developing Economies in Tokyo, and the Centre for Development and the Environment at the University of Oslo. Burlamaqui has written and published widely on innovation and competition, development economics, intellectual property rights, globalization and institutional change, and the political economy of global trade and finance. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Elizabeth Burleson is a professor at the University of South Dakota. Currently, she is a visiting professor at Florida State University College of Law. Burleson began participating in treaty negotiations at the United Nations in 1991, during proceedings for the UN Conference on the Environment and Development and helped draft the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Focusing on emerging International Law, Burleson has served as an advisor to UNICEF's Senior Advisor for the Environment and to the New York Director of the United Nations Environmental Programme, UNEP. Burleson has also written reports for UNESCO and UNDP. Her particular focus has been placed on human rights and environmental programs. She helped the UNEP Delegation and was a member of the National Wildlife Federation Delegation to the Copenhagen Climate Conference and a member of the UNICEF delegation to the Bali Climate Conference. Professor Burleson has also conducted legal research for Amnesty International's London based International Secretariat and New York based research division. Burleson has an LL.M. in International Law from London School of Economics and a J.D. from the University of Connecticut.
Ana Celia Castro is a full professor at the Center for Law and Economic Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. She has experience in economics, with emphasis on institutional economics, mainly in the following areas: agribusiness systems, technology trends, innovation, competitiveness and intellectual property. She coordinates the Graduate Program in Public Policies, Strategies and Development, Institute of Economics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (www.ie.ufrj.br and www.ideiad.com.br/pped) and is the vice-coordinator of the National Institute for Science and Technology in Public Policies, Strategies and Development (http://inctppedreport.ie.ufrj.br/). She serves as the Executive Secretary of REDES (Network on Development, Teaching and Society). Castro is also the coordinator of MINDS (Multidisciplinary Inter-Institutional Network on Development and Strategies) www.minds.org.br. The MINDS project is forged by a comprehensive (interdisciplinary) exploration of globalization in both its sources and its effects, and by convergent approaches in the fields of economics of innovation, competition and new regulatory devices, comparative institutional analysis, business organization and strategy, macro-finance, the developmental state as a key player, international organizations, and social inclusion’ strategies and policies. Castro graduated from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (1972). She holds a Master in Economic Science from State University of Campinas (1976), a PhD in Economic Science from State University of Campinas (1988), and she completed her post-doctoral studies at State University of Sao Paulo and the University of California, Berkeley (1999-2000).
Mishi Choudhary is one of a team of legal counselors at the Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC), based in New York. She joined SFLC following the completion of her fellowship during which she earned her LLM from Columbia Law School and was a Stone Scholar. Prior to this, Choudhary was a litigator in different chambers in India with areas of practice covering Corporate and Commercial Law, Arbitration & Dispute Resolution, Property Law, Information Technology Law, Trademarks and Copyrights, Constitutional and Administrative Law. Coudhary will be the founding director of SFLC India, pursuant to a grant to SFLC by the Soros Foundation's Open Society Institute. In addition to her LLM from Columbia Law, she has an LLB degree and a bachelors degree in political science from the University of Delhi, India. Mishi is a member of the Bar Council of Delhi, licensed to appear before the Supreme Court of India, all the State High Courts in India, and in the State of New York.
Carlos Maria Correa is Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies on Industrial Property and Economics and of the Post-graduate Course on Intellectual Property at the Law Faculty, University of Buenos Aires. He has been a visiting professor in post-graduate courses of several universities. Correa has also served as a consultant to UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNDP, WHO, FAO, IDB, INTAL, World Bank, SELA, ECLA, UNDP, and other regional and international organizations. He has advised several governments on intellectual property and innovation policy. He was a member of the UK Commission on Intellectual Property, of the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health established by the World Health Assembly and of the FAO Panel of Eminent Experts on Ethics in Food and Agriculture. He is the author of several books and numerous articles.
Carolyn Deere-Birkbeck is the Resident Scholar at International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and a Senior Researcher at the Global Economic Governance (GEG) Programme at the University of Oxford, where she directs its project on Global Trade Governance. She is also a Senior Research Associate at Oxford’s Centre for International Studies. Deere is the founder and Chair of the Board of Directors of Intellectual Property Watch - the leading news service on international intellectual property policymaking - and a member of the Advisory Board of 3D - Trade - Human Rights - Equitable Economy. Deere was previously the Assistant Director of the Global Inclusion theme at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York, where she was responsible for grant making on intellectual property, trade and sustainable development. With colleagues there, she designed and coordinated the Foundation’s initiative to “Promote a Fairer Course for Intellectual Property Policy” and launched the Bellagio Series on Development and Intellectual Property Policy. Deere also co-founded the Funders Network on Trade and Globalization (FNTG). Previously, she worked for the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and was the Manager of the Congressional Staff Forum on International Development at the Overseas Development Council (ODC). She has also been a consultant to the UNDP’s Office of the Human Development Report, National Wildlife Federation, Yale Centre for Environmental Law and Policy, Open Society Institute, and South Centre. Deere is the co-editor (with Dan Esty) of Greening the Americas: NAFTA’s Lessons for Hemispheric Trade (MIT Press, 2001), author of The Implementation Game: Developing Countries and the Politics of TRIPS (1995-2006) (forthcoming, 2007) and has published articles and reports on sustainable development and trade, particularly related to fisheries, intellectual property and eco-labeling. Deere holds a DPhil in International Relations (University College, Oxford), and an MA in International Relations (Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies).
Manisha Desai is Assistant General Patent Counsel at Eli Lilly and Company, a research-based pharmaceutical company based in Indianapolis, Indiana. She provides intellectual property support to Lilly’s local affiliates in various emerging markets, including Latin America, the Middle East, and South Asia. Since joining Lilly’s patent division in 1999, Manisha has worked on the procurement and enforcement of patents worldwide. She also actively follows intellectual property issues in various forums, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the World Intellectual Property Organization. Manisha conducted research in biochemistry and neuroscience for almost 10 years before obtaining a law degree from Indiana University School of Law in Bloomington. She has a PhD in Pharmacology from Emory University, and a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry, with a minor in Russian from Duke University.
Graeme B. Dinwoodie is the Professor of Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law at the University of Oxford, Director of the Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre, and a Professorial Fellow of St. Peter’s College. Prior to taking up the IP Chair at Oxford in 2009, Dinwoodie was a Professor of Law and Director of the Program in Intellectual Property Law at the Chicago-Kent College of Law. He is the author of several casebooks and numerous articles on various aspects of intellectual property law. His research focuses in particular on the international and comparative aspects of the discipline. He was elected to membership in the American Law Institute in 2003. He has served as consultant to WIPO on matters of private international law, as an Adviser to the American Law Institute Project on Principles on Jurisdiction and Recognition of Judgments in Intellectual Property Matters, and as a Consultant to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development on the Protection of Traditional Knowledge. Dinwoodie holds a First Class Honors LL.B. degree from the University of Glasgow, an LL.M. from Harvard Law School (where he was a Kennedy Scholar), and a J.S.D. from Columbia Law School (where he was a Burton Fellow).
Rochelle C. Dreyfuss is the Pauline Newman Professor of Law at New York University School of Law and Co-director of the Engelberg Center on Innovation Law and Policy at NYU. Her research interests include international and domestic intellectual property law. Dreyfuss was a law clerk to Chief Judge Wilfred Feinberg of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and to Chief Justice Warren E. Burger of the U.S. Supreme Court. She is a member of the American Law Institute and was a co-Reporter for its Project on Intellectual Property: Principles Governing Jurisdiction, Choice of Law, and Judgments in Transnational Disputes. She was a consultant to the Federal Courts Study Committee, to the Presidential Commission on Catastrophic Nuclear Accidents, and to the Federal Trade Commission. She is a past chair of the Intellectual Property Committee of the American Association of Law Schools. She was also a member of the National Academies committee on Intellectual Property in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation as well as the committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Dreyfuss is presently serving on the Academies’ Committee on Science, Technology, and Law and on the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Committee on Genetics Health and Society, SACGHS. She holds B.A. and M.S. degrees in Chemistry and was a research chemist before entering Columbia University School of Law, where she served as Articles and Book Review Editor of the Law Review.
Dominique Foray is both a professor and Chair in Economics and Management of Innovation at Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). Foray is also currently vice-chairman of the expert group "Knowledge for Growth," a group of prominent economists created to advise Commisioner J. Potocnik (European Commission, DG research). He is a member of the National Research Council (Switzerland), the Advisory Board of the Swiss Economic Institute (KOF) and the World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council. Foray’s research interests include all topics and issues related to the economics and management of technology, knowledge and innovation at both the micro and macro levels. This covers the economics of science and technology with a particular focus on high tech sectors, the management of large-scale technological projects, international comparisons of institutions, and systems of innovation within the context of the new economy. He serves as the 2009-President of the European Policy for Intellectual Property (EPIP) association. Between 2004 and 2008, Foray was the Dean of the "Collège du Management de la Technologie." Before joining EPFL, he was a Research Director at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and a Professor at the Institut pour le Management de la Recherche et de l'Innovation (IMRI) of the University of Paris-Dauphine (from 1993 to 2000). Foray also worked as a Principal Analyst at the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) from 2000 to 2004. He received his PhD in 1984 and his "habilitation" in 1992 from the University Lumière of Lyon. He received the distinction of outstanding research in 1995 (médaille du CNRS).
Daniel J. Gervais is Professor of Law and Co-director of the Technology & Entertainment Law Program at Vanderbilt University Law School. Prior to Vanderbilt, he was the Acting Dean, University Research Chair in Intellectual Property at the Faculty of Law of the University of Ottawa (Common Law Section). Before he joined the academy, Gervais was successively Legal Officer at the GATT (now WTO); Head of Section at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO); and Vice-President, International of Massachusetts-based Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., CCC. He also served as consultant to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, in Paris. He is Editor-in-Chief of the peer-reviewed Journal of World Intellectual Property and the author of several books, book chapters and articles published in six different languages. Gervais studied computer science and law at McGill University and the University of Montreal, where he also obtained LL.B. and LL.M. degrees, and received several awards. He was a visiting professor at several universities in Europe and North America and a visiting scholar at Stanford Law School. He also received a Diploma summa cum laude from the Institute of Advanced International Studies in Geneva and a doctorate magna cum laude from the University of Nantes (France).
Akira Goto is a Commissioner of Fair Trade Commission of the Government of Japan, and an Emeritus Professor of the University of Tokyo. His research and expertise covers the economics of competition policy and the economics of innovation. Prior to joining the University of Tokyo, Goto taught at Hitotsubashi University and Seikei University. In addition, he held visiting positions at Yale University, Oxford University, Australian National University and the OECD. His major works include “R&D Capital, Rate of Return on R&D Investment and Spillover of R&D in Japanese Manufacturing Industries” (with Kazuyuki Suzuki, Review of Economics and Statistics), Competition Policy in a Global Economy (ed. with W. Comanor and L. Waverman, Routledge, 1996), Innovation in Japan (ed. with H.Odagiri, Oxford University Press, 1997), and “Japan's National Innovation System: Current Status and Problems” (Oxford Review of Economic Policy). He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Hitotsubashi University.
Calestous Juma is Professor of the Practice of International Development and Director of the Science, Technology, and Globalization Project at the Belfer Center at Harvard University. He also directs the Agricultural Innovation in Africa Project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. He is a former Executive Secretary of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and Founding Director of the African Centre for Technology Studies in Nairobi, and he also served as Chancellor of the University of Guyana. He has been elected to several scientific academies including the Royal Society of London, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World, the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, and the African Academy of Sciences. He has won several international awards for his work on sustainable development. He holds a Ph.D. in science and technology policy studies and has written widely on science, technology, and environment. Among others, he serves on on the boards of WWF International and the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) Foundation.He is lead author of Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development and co-editor of Engineering Change: Towards a Sustainable Future in the Developing World. He is editor of the peer-reviewed International Journal of Technology and Globalisation and International Journal of Biotechnology. His next book, The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa, will be published by Oxford University Press in December 2010.
Amy Kapczynski is a Visiting Associate Professor at Yale Law School, and Assistant Professor of Law at the University of California at Berkeley Law School. Her current research addresses the implications of the propertization of information in a global perspective, and the relationship between law and social movements. She has clerked for the U.S. Supreme Court (for Justices O'Connor and Breyer, 2005-06) and the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (for Judge Guido Calabresi, 2003-04). She was awarded a post-doctoral fellowship at the Yale Law School and the Yale School of Public Health (2004-2005; 2006-2007). In 2001, Kapczynski helped lead efforts that resulted in Yale University and Bristol-Myers Squibb permitting generic competition and providing steep price discounts for an important anti-AIDS drug (d4T) in South Africa. Drawing on this experience, Kapczynski co-founded Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) with other students in 2002. Her most recent publication is “Harmonization and its Discontents: A Case Study of TRIPS Implementation in India’s Pharmaceutical Sector,” California Law Review, 97 (2009):1571. She has also co-edited a volume entitled Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property (forthcoming from Zone Press this fall). She received her A.B. summa cum laude in Politics and Women's Studies from Princeton University (1996), and received her J.D. from Yale Law School (2003).
Bernice Lee is Research Director for Energy, Environment and Resource Governance at Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs. She was Head of the Energy, Environment and Development Programme and Team Leader for the EU-China Interdependencies on Energy and Climate Security project; Policy and Strategy Advisor of the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development; Warren Weaver Fellow at the Rockefeller Foundation; and Research Associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies. She also held positions at the Strategic Planning Unit of the United Nations Secretary-General's office, the Aga Khan Foundation, and the International Institute for Environment and Development. Lee, together with IIlian Iliev and Felix Preston, authored Who Owns Our Low Carbon Future? Energy Technologies and Intellectual Property (Chatham House, 2009) – a study of 57,000 patents in six energy sectors. She holds an MSc International Relations from the London School of Economics and BA (Oxon) Politics and Economics from Oxford University, where she was a College Scholar for three years.
James Love is the Director of Knowledge Ecology International (KEI). He is also the U.S. co-chair of the Trans-Atlantic Consumer Dialogue (TACD) Intellectual Property Policy Committee, chair of Essential Inventions, an advisor to the X-Prize Foundation on a prize for TB diagnostics, and a member of the UNITAID Expert Group on Patent Pools, the MSF Working Group on Intellectual Property, the Stop-TB Partnership working group on new drug development, and the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) Dynamic Coalition on Open Standards. He advises UN agencies, national governments, international and regional intergovernmental organizations and public health NGOs, and is the author of a number of articles and monographs on innovation and intellectual property rights. In 2006, Knowledge Ecology International received a MacArthur Award for Creative and Effective Institutions. Love was previously Senior Economist for the Frank Russell Company, a lecturer at Rutgers University, and a researcher on international finance at Princeton University. He holds a Masters of Public Administration from Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a Masters in Public Affairs from Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
Brian Lowry is a Deputy General Counsel and leads the Office of Policy, Stewardship, Regulation and Government for Monsanto Company. The Office focuses on a broad range of issues and policies including multi-lateral environmental agreements, international trade, intellectual property systems, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) training and compliance, business conduct, human rights, and product life-cycle stewardship and provides legal support to Government Affairs, Public Affairs, Regulatory Affairs, Industry Affairs, Human Resources and Environment, Safety and Health. Before assuming his current role, he was the Vice-President for Public Policy and Global Strategy for Monsanto’s Commercial Acceptance group. He has also served as the Director of Industry Affairs for Monsanto’s Animal Agriculture Group/Monsanto Protein Technologies. Since joining Monsanto in 1989, Lowry has had the opportunity to work in a wide variety of substantive areas, including regulatory compliance, approvals, moratoria and investigations; food labeling at the federal, state and local levels; product disparagement and First Amendment rights; and the World Trade Organization and the United Nations Environmental Programme. He was a contributing author to the second and third books by the Crucible Group on the preservation of natural resources and biodiversity and the applicability of intellectual property laws to such.
Sunil Mani is Planning Commission Chair Professor in Development Economics at the Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, India. Until 2004, he was a member of the faculty at the United Nations University-Institute for New Technologies (now known as UNU-MERIT) at Maastricht in the Netherlands. Mani is also a visiting faculty member at the Indian Institute of Management-Calcutta , nd at the Globelics Academy at the Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal and at the University of Tampere, Finland. He serves as an advisory editor with Research Policy and the International Journal of Technology and Globalisation. He has published extensively in his area of research, which involves measuring innovation using new indicators, innovation policy instruments, and the growth of high-technology industries. Mani just authored the chapter on India for the UNESCO Science Report 2010. He is currently directing a research project on the TRIPS compliance of national patent regimes, and innovative activity in five developing countries under the Catch Up series. He obtained his M.Phil and Ph.D. in Economics from Jawaharlal Nehru University.
Keith E. Maskus is a Professor of Economics and Associate Dean for Social Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has been a Lead Economist in the Development Research Group at the World Bank. He is also a Research Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, a Fellow at the Kiel Institute for World Economics, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Adelaide. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Adelaide and the University of Bocconi, and a visiting scholar at the CES-Ifo Institute at the University of Munich and the China Center for Economic Research at Peking University. Maskus also serves as a consultant for the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the World Intellectual Property Organization. He has written extensively about various aspects of international trade. His current research focuses on the international economic aspects of protecting intellectual property rights. He is the author of Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy (Institute for International Economics), and co-editor of International Public Goods and the Transfer of Technology under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime (Cambridge University Press). He received his Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan in 1981.
David Mowery is William A. and Betty H. Hasler Professor of New Enterprise Development at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Mowery taught at Carnegie-Mellon University, served as the Study Director for the Panel on Technology and Employment of the National Academy of Sciences, and served in the Office of the United States Trade Representative as a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow. He has been a member of a number of National Research Council panels, including those on the Competitive Status of the U.S. Civil Aviation Industry, on the Causes and Consequences of the Internationalization of U.S. Manufacturing, on the Federal Role in Civilian Technology Development, on U.S. Strategies for the Children's Vaccine Initiative, and on Applications of Biotechnology to Contraceptive Research and Development. During 2003-2004, he was the Marvin Bower Research Fellow at the Harvard Business School. His research deals with the economics of technological innovation and with the effects of public policies on innovation. Mowery has published numerous academic papers and has written or edited a number of books, including the Oxford Handbook of Innovation; Innovation, Path Dependency, and Policy; Innovation in Global Industries; Ivory Tower and Industrial Innovation: University-Industry Technology Transfer Before and After the Bayh-Dole Act; Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America; The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure; U.S. Industry in 2000; The Sources of Industrial Leadership; Science and Technology Policy in Interdependent Economies; Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth; Alliance Politics and Economics: Multinational Joint Ventures in Commercial Aircraft; Technology and Employment: Innovation and Growth in the U.S. Economy; The Impact of Technological Change on Employment and Economic Growth; Technology and the Wealth of Nations; and International Collaborative Ventures in U.S. Manufacturing. He received his undergraduate and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Stanford University and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard Business School.
Richard R. Nelson is an economist by training. Over his career he has taught at Oberlin College, Carnegie Mellon University, Yale University, and Columbia University. He now heads the program on Science, Technology, and Global Development at the Earth Institute, Columbia University, and is George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs, Business, and Law, at Columbia, Emeritus, and Visiting Professor at the University of Manchester. He has served as research economist and analyst at the Rand Corporation, and at the President’s Council of Economic Advisors. He was director of the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University, and has directed Columbia’s Public Policy Doctoral Consortium. His central interests have focused on long-run economic change. Much of his research has been directed toward understanding technological change, how economic institutions and public policies influence the evolution of technology, and how technological change in turn induces institutional and economic change more broadly. His work has been both empirical and theoretical. Along with Sidney Winter, he has pioneered in trying to develop a way of economic theorizing that recognizes explicitly that the economy is almost always undergoing change, mos t of it unpredictable, and that theories that assume that economic agents understand well the context in which they are operating, and that the system is in equilibrium, are inadequate for analysis of many important economic questions. His book with SidneyWinter, An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change is widely recognized as a landmark in this field. Over the course of his career, he has been particularly attracted to working with and coordinating relatively large research teams. His National Innovation Systems project involved a team of approximately twenty scholars; his study on The Sources of Industrial Leadership involved the coordination of a similar-size group. Recently he orchestrated a study resulting in the book The Limits of Market Organization (Russell Sage). He currently is orchestrating a large multi faceted project that is studying various aspects of economic development as a learning process.
Hiroyuki Odagiri has been teaching at the Faculty of Social Innovation, Seijo University, Japan, since 2010. Previously he taught at Oberlin College (USA), University of Tsukuba (Japan) and Hitotsubashi University (Japan). He also has an ample research experience abroad, serving as a senior research fellow at the International Institute of Management (IIM) of Science Centre Berlin (Germany) during 1982-1983 and the Centre for Business Strategy of London Business School (UK) during 1988-1990. During 2001-2004, he also directed research at the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP), a research institute of Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Since April 2008, Odagiri has served as Director of the Competition Policy Research Center, Fair Trade Commission of Japan. His fields of specialization are the theory of the firm, industrial organization, and economic studies of innovation. He has written numerous books and journal papers in English and Japanese, among them: The Theory of Growth in a Corporate Economy (Cambridge University Press, 1981), which won a ‘Nikkei Award to Economic Literature’ in Japan; Growth through Competition, Competition through Growth (Oxford University Press, 1992); Technology and Industrial Development in Japan (Oxford University Press, 1996, co-authored with A. Goto), and Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up (Oxford University Press, 2010, co-edited with A. Goto, A. Sunami, and R. R. Nelson). His Japanese books include Economics of the Firm (Toyo Keizai, 2000), Modern Industrial Organization (Yuhikaku, 2001), The Economics of Biotechnology (Toyo Keizai, 2006), and Competition Policy (Nihon Hyron Sha, 2008). Odagiri studied at Kyoto University (B.A.), Osaka University (M.A.) and Northwestern University (Ph.D.).
Philip G. Pardey is Professor of Science and Technology Policy in the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota, where he also directs the University’s International Science and Technology Practice and Policy, InSTePP, center. Previously he was a senior research fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C., and at the International Service for National Agricultural Research in The Hague, Netherlands. He is a Fellow of the American Agricultural Economics Association and a Distinguished Fellow and President of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society. His research deals with the finance and conduct of R&D globally, methods for assessing the economic impacts of research, and the economic and policy (especially intellectual property) aspects of genetic resources and the biosciences. Pardey currently co-directs a Gates Foundation project, HarvestChoice (www.HarvestChoice.org), designed to inform and guide investments intended to stimulate productivity growth in African agriculture. Pardey is the author of more than 220 books, articles, and papers, including, Ending Hunger in Our Lifetime: Food Security and Globalization (John Hopkins University Press, 2003), Saving Seeds: The Economics of Conserving Crop Genetic Resources Ex Situ in the Future Harvest Centers of the CGIAR (CAB International, 2004), Agricultural R&D in the Developing World: Too Little, Too Late? (International Food Policy Research Institute, 2006), and Persistence Pays: U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Benefits from Public R&D Spending (Springer, 2010).
Chan Park is the legal officer for the Medicines Patent Pool Initiative at UNITAID in Geneva, Switzerland. At UNITAID, he is currently working to establish a Patent Pool for AIDS medicines, under which patent holding companies would voluntarily license their patents on AIDS medicines to allow for low-cost and well-adapted generic versions to be made available to people in the developing world. Prior to joining UNITAID, Chan spent four years in Bangalore and Delhi, India, working on issues related to intellectual property and access to medicines. As the Senior Technical and Policy Adviser at the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit in India, he worked on a range of issues surrounding the implementation and interpretation of India's recently-introduced pharmaceutical product patent regime. Chan has also consulted for various international organizations, including the United Nations Development Programme, the World Health Organization, and UNITAID on a range of issues relating to intellectual property and access to medicines. Chan graduated from the New York University School of Law and practiced as an intellectual property litigator at the law firm of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich and Rosati in San Francisco.
Arti Rai is the Elvin R. Latty Professor of Law at Duke University. She is an authority in patent law, administrative law, law and the biopharmaceutical industry, and health care regulation. Her current research on innovation policy in areas such as green technology, drug development, and software is funded by NIH, the Kauffman Foundation, and Chatham House. She has published widely in both peer-reviewed journals and law reviews, including Nature Biotechnology, PLoS Biology, PLoS Medicine, the Annals of Internal Medicine, and the Columbia, Georgetown, and Northwestern law reviews. She is currently editing a book on intellectual property rights in biotechnology and has also co-authored a casebook on law and the mental health system. Rai has served as a peer reviewer for Science, Research Policy, the Journal of Legal Studies, various National Academy of Sciences reports on intellectual property, and various NIH study sections. She has also testified before the U.S. Senate on innovation policy issues. Rai is currently the chair of the Intellectual Property Committee of the Administrative Law Section of the American Bar Association. Prior to entering academia, Rai clerked for the Honorable Marilyn Hall Patel of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; was a litigation associate at Jenner & Block (doing patent litigation as well as other litigation); and was a litigator at the Federal Programs Branch of the U.S. Department of Justice's Civil Division. Rai graduated from Harvard College, magna cum laude, with a B.A. in biochemistry and history (history and science), attended Harvard Medical School for the 1987-1988 academic year, and received her J.D., cum laude, from Harvard Law School in 1991.
Jerome H. Reichman is the Bunyan S. Womble Professor of Law at Duke Law School. He has written and lectured widely on diverse aspects of intellectual property law, including comparative and international intellectual property and the connection between intellectual property and international trade laws. His articles in this area particularly address problems that developing countries face in implementing the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). He is consultant to numerous intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, a member of the Board of Editors for the Journal of International Economic Law, and of the Scientific Advisory Board of Il Diritto di Autore (Rome). In collaboration with Keith Maskus, he published International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime (Cambridge Press, 2005). His most recent publications include: Intellectual Property in the 21st Century: Will Developing Countries Lead or Follow? (2009); Rethinking the Role of Clinical Trial Data in International Intellectual Property Law: The Case for a Public Goods Approach (2009); Harmonization Without Consensus: Critical Reflections on Drafting a Substantive Patent Law Treaty (2007) (co-authored with Prof. Rochelle Dreyfuss); and The Doha Round’s Public Health Legacy: Strategies for the Production and Diffusion of Patented Medicines Under the Amended TRIPS Provisions (co-authored with Prof. Fred Abbott). He is currently finishing a book entitled “Designing the Microbial Research Commons: Global Intellectual Property Strategies for Accessing and Using Essential Public Knowledge Assets” (co-authored with Tom Dedeurwaerdere and Paul Uhlir, draft version 2010 under review).
Pedro Roffe joined the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in 1973, where his work focused on international aspects of transfer of technology, intellectual property and foreign direct investment. He is currently Senior Fellow at the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) where he oversees the work of the Programme on Intellectual Property and Development. In recent years he has been consultant to international organizations and private associations. During his career, Roffe has paid particular attention to international negotiations and has advised governments on strategies and policies in the above areas. He has published articles, books, and collective publications, including: The TRIPS Agreement and Developing Countries; International Technology Transfer: The Origins and Aftermath of the United Nations Negotiations on a Draft Code of Conduct; Bilateral Agreements and a TRIPS-Plus World: the Chile-USA Free Trade Agreement; Resource Book on TRIPS and Development; Negotiating Health: Intellectual Property and Access to Medicines; Los Derechos de propiedad intelectual en los acuerdos de libre comercio celebrados por países de América Latina con países desarrollados; America Latina y la Nueva Arquitectura Internacional de la Propiedad Intelectual; and Intellectual Property and Sustainable Development: Regional Agendas. He is of Chilean nationality and lives in Switzerland. Roffe graduated from the Faculty of Law of the Universidad de Chile and completed postgraduate studies at New York University, Europa Institute (University of Amsterdam) and the Graduate Institute of International Studies (Geneva).
Antony Taubman is currently Director, Intellectual Property Division, World Trade Organization, with responsibility for intellectual property, competition and government procurement. From 2002 to 2009, he was Director, Global Intellectual Property Issues Division of WIPO (including the Traditional Knowledge Division and Life Sciences Program), covering a wide range of programs on intellectual property and genetic resources, traditional knowledge and folklore, the life sciences, and related global issues including the environment, climate change, human rights, food security, bioethics and indigenous issues. After a diplomatic career, he left the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) in 2001 to join the newly-formed Australian Centre for Intellectual Property in Agriculture, at the Australian National University, teaching and researching on international IP law. From 1998 to 2001, he was Director of the International Intellectual Property Section of DFAT, and in that capacity was engaged in multilateral and bilateral negotiations on intellectual property issues, domestic policy development, regional cooperation, and TRIPS dispute settlement. He has taken part in many training and capacity building programs on intellectual property law and TRIPS in Australia and a number of Asian countries. Taubman has authored a training handbook on intellectual property and biotechnology, a comprehensive study on the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement, and a range of academic and general publications on international intellectual property law and policy. He has held a teaching appointment at the School of Law at the University of Melbourne, delivering a specialist postgraduate course on TRIPS Law and Practice, and has taught postgraduate intellectual property law in several Masters programs. In 2008, the Rockefeller Foundation awarded him a Bellagio residential fellowship for his work on TRIPS and public policy issues. His tertiary education has included computer science, mathematics, engineering, classical languages, philosophy, international relations and law, including two academic prizes for postgraduate law from the University of Edinburgh, and he has taught ancient Greek philosophy at Melbourne University.
Jeffrey D. Sachs is the Director of The Earth Institute, Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Development, and Professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University. He is also Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. From 2002 to 2006, he was Director of the UN Millennium Project and Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan on the Millennium Development Goals, the internationally agreed goals to reduce extreme poverty, disease, and hunger by the year 2015. Sachs is also President and Co-Founder of Millennium Promise Alliance, a nonprofit organization aimed at ending extreme global poverty. He is widely considered to be the leading international economic advisor of his generation. For more than 20 years, Sachs has been in the forefront of the challenges of economic development, poverty alleviation, and enlightened globalization, promoting policies to help all parts of the world to benefit from expanding economic opportunities and wellbeing. Sachs is also one of the leading voices for combining economic development with environmental sustainability, and as Director of the Earth Institute leads large-scale efforts to promote the mitigation of human-induced climate change. He is the author of hundreds of scholarly articles and many books, including the New York Times bestsellers Common Wealth (Penguin, 2008) and The End of Poverty (Penguin, 2005). He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Prior to joining Columbia, he spent over twenty years at Harvard University, most recently as Director of the Center for International Development. A native of Detroit, Michigan, Sachs received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees at Harvard University.
Bhaven N. Sampat is an assistant professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management and (by courtesy) in the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, and also teaches in the Sustainable Development PhD program at the Earth Institute, Columbia University. An economist by training, Sampat is centrally interested in issues at the intersection of health policy and innovation policy. His current projects examine the impacts of new global patent laws on innovation and access to medicines in developing countries, the political economy of the National Institutes of Health, the roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutical innovation, and institutional aspects of patent systems. He has also written extensively on the effects of university patenting and "entrepreneurship" on academic medicine, and is actively involved in policy debates related to these issues. Sampat co-created the first free, searchable database of post--TRIPs patent applications in India, india.bigpatents.org. He is recipient of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation "Investigator Award" to study how the NIH allocates its funds across disease areas. Sampat holds a BA, MA, MPhil, and PhD in Economics from Columbia University.
Kenneth C. Shadlen is a political scientist in the Department of International Development at the London School of Economics. He works on the politics of intellectual property and the politics of trade and integration. Some of his recent work on these topics has been published in Comparative Politics, Global Governance, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of Development Studies, Review of International Political Economy, and Studies in Comparative International Development. He is co-editor (with Sebastian Haunss) of The Politics of Intellectual Property: Contestation over the Ownership, Use, and Control of Knowledge and Information (Edward Elgar, 2009) and (with Diego Sánchez-Ancochea) of The Political Economy of Hemispheric Integration: Responding to Globalization in the Americas (Palgrave, 2008). He is currently completing a book manuscript on the politics of patents, technology, and innovation policy in Latin America.
Inder Singh is the Director of the Drug Access at the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI). He oversees a team of business professionals and scientists, and a portfolio of initiatives to enable greater access to medicines. He and his team have negotiated a series of deals with pharmaceutical companies that have lowered the price of drugs for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis by up to 80% for CHAI's Procurement Consortium of 70+ developing countries, and have also supported the market entry of 5 new and more than 15 generic drug formulations, enabling more effective treatment and decreasing supply risks. Their work to lower prices is resulting in cost savings estimated at more than $500 million, while simultaneously enabling millions more patients to receive treatment. Singh’s team utilizes a market-based approach to achieve results. For example, by working with suppliers to reduce their costs of production, financial risks, or the investment required to develop a product, suppliers are willing to offer lower prices or commit to rapid product development. Prior to this role, Singh led the expansion of CHAI's drug access program to include medicines for malaria. Prior to joining CHAI, he worked in consulting and at two technology startups. He is also the founder of a successful nonprofit that supports children undergoing extensive physical rehabilitation. Singh holds five academic degrees, from the University of Michigan, MIT Sloan School of Management, the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences & Technology’s Biomedical Enterprise Program, and Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.
Richard Wilder is Associate General Counsel for Intellectual Property Policy at Microsoft Corporation. In that capacity, he has the responsibility for defining and driving the company-wide policy in all areas of intellectual property. He was previously a partner in a global law firm specializing in international law – in particular in the fields of intellectual property and trade. Mr. Wilder is a former Director of the Global Intellectual Property Issues Division of the World Intellectual Property Organization – a specialized agency of the United Nations. He also served in the Office of Legislative and International Affairs at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Wilder has taught law – including at the University of Malaya, Malaysia - and speaks and writes often in the field of intellectual property law. He has degrees in engineering (University of Washington, Seattle) and law (Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, New Hampshire).
Mark Wu is an Assistant Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Prior to attending law school, Wu served as director for intellectual property in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative at the White House from 2003-04, where he led the U.S. negotiating team for intellectual property in several free trade agreements, including the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), and agreements with Morocco and Bahrain. Wu was also responsible for overseeing IP trade issues with China, Russia, India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, the former Soviet republics, and the Middle East. He was actively involved in bilateral and multilateral negotiations concerning the protection and enforcement of IP rights by U.S. trading partners, and participated in the WTO accession talks with several countries. Before joining the USTR office, Wu worked for four years at McKinsey & Company in San Francisco, where he was involved with several projects, including devising a strategy for the American semiconductor industry to counter competitive threats in Asia. From 1998-99, Wu worked as an economist and operations officer for the World Bank in Beijing, China. Previously, Wu also spent time as an economist for the United Nations Development Programme in Namibia. He is a co-author of The Law of the World Trade Organization. He holds a J.D. from Yale Law School, an M.Sc. in Development Economics from Oxford University, and an A.B. from Harvard College, as well as a diploma in Japanese Studies from Kyoto University.